Just Energy Transition Partnerships

From Promise to Practice: Ensuring JETPs can deliver

What are JETPs? 

As the world continues to wean itself off fossil fuels, coal-dependent emerging economies have a winding road ahead. One of the most important questions on the global climate agenda is how to help these developing economies decarbonize their energy systems while simultaneously transitioning into resilient, affordable, and clean energy infrastructure. One model that is gaining momentum is a funding agreement known as Just Energy Transition Partnerships (JETPs).

JETPs are an innovative approach of international cooperation to accelerate country-led energy transition. The model is supported by the International Partners Group (IPG) composed of the European Union (EU), the UK, the US, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Denmark and Norway. Collectively they aim to help emerging economies secure a just transition towards low carbon energy sources, with equity considerations at their core.


The JETP model was first announced at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow in 2021. France, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union partnered with South Africa for the first JETP, consisting of a USD $8.5 billion pledge to support coal emissions reductions and clean energy infrastructure. At the 2022 G20 Summit in Bali, Indonesia became the second country to announce a USD $20 billion deal. A JETP deal with Vietnam was announced shortly after in December 2022. In June 2023, Senegal became the fourth country to announce a EUR €2.5 billion deal.

While the promise of support for the transition to renewable energy is a positive development, there are significant risks associated with these deals. These range from a lack of transparency, to elite capture with conflicting interests that want to tap into this big pot of money for all kinds of false solutions.

With anything that requires a massive infrastructure shift, accountability and transparency from leadership is essential in ensuring the billions in funding are used for their intended purpose. In the case of JETPs, this means using the money for renewable energy infrastructure that benefits all communities. Such accountability and transparency is only possible when local NGOs and civil society experts can (i) participate freely and fully in public discussions, (ii) provide independent monitoring of social and environmental impacts, and (iii) support communities to advocate for their rights.

This is the “just” aspect of a just energy transition. With this in mind, financial institutions have an imperative role in paying careful attention to the situation of civil society voices in JETP recipient countries.

Resources are needed for climate action. It has taken years to get to a funding deal like Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) that considers both climate and social needs. However, the red flags in the deal and the process could undermine the justice of the transition. The danger is leaving recipient countries in situations that are worse-off, considering the debt implications and hollowing out national sovereignty.

As civil society, we call for a principles approach to financing the needs of the Just Transition and climate action. Principles are critical organising and mobilising tools to shape progressive action, drive demands and make action inclusive.

The JETP was first announced for South Africa at COP26. Since then, JETPs have been announced for Indonesia, Vietnam and Senegal with the objectives of mobilising  finance for coal-dependent countries. CSOs across the countries have all called for more transparency, accountability and inclusivity in the dealings of the International Partner Group of Donors, and the respective governments. In both South Africa and Indonesia, Principles for fair finance and just transitions have been a useful organising tool for CSOs. Where the details of JETP are not often public, and consultations are non-existent or not meaningful, principles have been a way for CSOs to gather and serve as an opportunity to build capacity being guided by collective aspirations.

In South Africa, the JETP had several public processes, but it’s not clear how inclusive the final deal will be. In Senegal false solutions like gas are considered under JETP. In Indonesia, the role of private solar power producers is risky and in Vietnam, activists have been jailed for speaking out. One common thing is that the negotiations are always behind closed doors, reinforcing unequal power dynamics between the IPG and countries in the Global South.

Coming together as recipient countries provides an opportunity to mobilise collectively and lobby as one. Especially where there are different levels of civil society freedoms in different countries. It provides the opportunity to be stronger together where a just transition must tackle existing systemic and structural barriers to change without reinforcing or recreating inequalities and power imbalances.

Principles for a Fair JETP by Recipient countries serve to shape finance by placing people at the centre of the just transition and acting as a governance and accountability mechanism by which we can collectively mobilise. These principles are intended to be a living document, and applicable at global, national and local levels. They serve as a discussion starter, or a tool to identify capacity-building needs. We welcome all forms of feedback and ideas on how to use these principles, so they remain inclusive and open.

Civil society and affected communities must be at the centre of climate justice, and importantly, in the financing deals that shape actions.


Stay tuned!

350.org is working on a global set of principles signed by Civil Society Organizations in JETP recipient countries that will underscore what is expected from leadership.

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Case Studies

“Just Transition” is a principle, a process and a practice


People are at the core of a Just Energy Transition.

Principles without application are simply ideals; good only for political platitudes and ‘what-ifs’. At 350.org, we don’t believe in ‘what-ifs’ — we believe in tangible, real solutions. So we’ve connected with frontline communities and documented existing solutions in JETP recipient countries that place the community at the heart of the solution and demonstrate the principles in practice, or outline where their implementation may be improved.

We believe projects like the ones below should be supported by the funds that come in through the Just Energy Transition Partnerships — and will continue to document more cases like these to demonstrate the possibilities of a community-centred energy transition.

Karangtengah Village, Indonesia

“It is very possible to involve the role of the community when implementing a JETP in Indonesia. In fact, JETP funding has the potential to be directed to the community to contribute to achieving the target of reducing emissions and the mix of renewable energy in Indonesia, for the power generation sector, 34% in 2030”

Suriadi Darmoko, 350 Indonesia campaigner

The community in Karangtengah Village, Cilongok District, Banyumas Regency, Central Java has been utilizing the Telaga Pucung Micro Hydro Power Plant (PLTMH), since 2012. Sunarto (49), one of the pioneers of the Telaga Pucung PLTMH said, now, he can run a photocopying business, selling frozen food and cold drinks. Electricity bills for household and business needs, average IDR 100,000/month.

The electricity bill is cheaper than the electricity connection from PLN (State Electricity Company) which uses a coal power plant. Some of the villagers also refused the electricity connection from the PLN. They prefer the electricity connection from the Telaga Pucung Micro Hydro Power Plant. (Rewritten based on news in Suara Merdeka media)

Oolu Solar, Sénegal

“The success of a JETP calls for a participatory process that provides for consultation and inclusion of the Senegalese citizens. It is a chance for Senegal to make a major step forward in its transition to a clean energy future. It is important that the funds are used judiciously and that they are channeled to renewable energy projects that will benefit the people of Senegal and the planet”

Aly Sagne, Founder of Lumière Synergie pour le Développement

Oolu Solar, a Senegal-based off-grid solar startup since 2015, offers a compelling alternative to the state-provided energy solutions in Senegal and West Africa. They collaborate closely with local communities to provide high-quality, affordable solar products. Many of the villages they serve previously lacked access to electricity, significantly impacting their well-being.

Initially, Oolu Solar introduced a kit model featuring solar-powered lights, charged by solar panels and batteries. This replaced the need for candles and was offered through flexible monthly payments over 18, 24, or 36 months, tailored to income frequency. Once payments were complete, customers became owners of their systems. This adaptable model is customized to suit each zone’s specific needs, reflecting Oolu Solar’s commitment to understanding and addressing community requirements.

As the communities became accustomed to the lighting kits, Oolu Solar expanded its product range to include radios, TVs, and fans. Today, they have installations in every region of Senegal and five other West African countries, demonstrating their commitment to providing practical and tailored energy solutions that significantly improve lives.

Want to know more?

Here is some more in-depth content on JETPs, from 350.org, our partner organizations, or the media.
  • JETP Global Principles: informed by local contexts and consultation with constituencies, emphasize civil society’s role in shaping solutions and affirm their right to be included in decision-making processes. Intended as both a mobilizing tool and a means of capacity building, the principles aim to empower civil society and communities to assert their vision and demand inclusion in discussions about their local needs, remaining open to ongoing engagement and adaptation.
  • Strengthening an Inclusive, Green and Effective Just Energy Transition: in this report, a community of civil society organizations in Indonesia provide a nuanced view of the JETP in the country and propose recommendations to strengthen its inclusiveness, accountability and effectiveness.
  • Just Transitions and Just Energy Transition Partnerships: friends or foes?: in this background briefing about JETPs, we discuss their pros and cons and where we should focus our energy to make them better.
  • Vietnam’s Climate Prisoners: in this webinar, we hear moving testimonies from friends and colleagues of Vietnam’s climate prisoners, and the connections between climate funding (as JETPs) and the protection to civil right in the country.



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